对不起,爱因斯坦——你可能不是最好的榜样

时间:2020-03-23 20:02 来源:seo 作者:杏鑫 点击量:

对不起,爱因斯坦——你可能不是最好的榜样

努力工作的人可能比天才更能成为榜样。

Role+models+are+important+for+aspiring+scientists%2c+but+new+research+suggests+that+scientists+who+are+known+for+their+hard+work+%26mdash%3b+like+Thomas+Edison+%26mdash%3b+are+more+motivating+than+scientists+who+are+viewed+as+naturally+brilliant%2c+like+Albert+Einstein.%0aIn+a+series+of+studies%2c+researchers+found+that+young+people+were+more+motivated+by+scientists+whose+success+was+associated+with+effort+than+those+whose+success+was+attributed+to+innate%2c+exceptional+intelligence%2c+even+if+that+scientist+was+Albert+Einstein.%0aDanfei+Hu%2c+a+doctoral+student+at+Penn+State%2c+and+Janet+N.+Ahn%2c+an+assistant+professor+of+psychology+at+William+Paterson+University%2c+said+the+findings+%26mdash%3b+recently+published+in+Basic+and+Applied+Social+Psychology+%26mdash%3b+will+help+dispel+certain+myths+about+what+it+takes+to+succeed+in+science.%0a%26ldquo%3bThere%26rsquo%3bs+a+misleading+message+out+there+that+says+you+have+to+be+a+genius+in+order+to+be+a+scientist%2c%26rdquo%3b+Hu+said.+%26ldquo%3bThis+just+isn%26rsquo%3bt+true+and+may+be+a+big+factor+in+deterring+people+from+pursuing+science+and+missing+out+on+a+great+career.+Struggling+is+a+normal+part+of+doing+science+and+exceptional+talent+is+not+the+sole+prerequisite+for+succeeding+in+science.+It%26rsquo%3bs+important+we+help+spread+this+message+in+science+education.%26rdquo%3b%0aAccording+to+the+researchers%2c+there+is+concern+in+the+science+community+with+the+number+of+students+who+pursue+careers+in+science+during+school+only+to+drop+out+from+those+career+paths+once+they+graduate+from+college.+Researchers+have+coined+this+phenomenon+as+the+%26ldquo%3bleaking+STEM+pipeline.%26rdquo%3b%0aTo+help+solve+the+problem%2c+Hu+and+Ahn+wanted+to+research+role+modeling%2c+which+gives+aspiring+scientists+specific+goals%2c+behaviors+or+strategies+they+can+mimic.+But+while+previous+studies+have+examined+qualities+that+make+role+models+effective%2c+Hu+and+Ahn+were+curious+about+whether+the+aspiring+scientists%26rsquo%3b+own+beliefs+about+potential+role+models+had+an+effect+on+their+motivation.%0a%26ldquo%3bThe+attributions+people+make+of+others%26rsquo%3b+success+are+important+because+those+views+could+significantly+impact+whether+they+believe+they%2c+too%2c+can+succeed%2c%26rdquo%3b+Ahn+said.+%26ldquo%3bWe+were+curious+about+whether+aspiring+scientists%26rsquo%3b+beliefs+about+what+contributed+to+the+success+of+established+scientists+would+influence+their+own+motivation.%26rdquo%3b%0aThe+researchers+performed+three+studies+with+176%2c+162+and+288+participants+in+each%2c+respectively.+In+the+first+study%2c+all+participants+read+the+same+story+about+common+struggles+a+scientist+encountered+in+their+science+career.+However%2c+half+were+told+the+story+was+about+Einstein%2c+while+half+believed+it+was+about+Thomas+Edison.%0aDespite+the+stories+being+the+same%2c+participants+were+more+likely+to+believe+natural+brilliance+was+the+reason+for+Einstein%26rsquo%3bs+success.+Additionally%2c+the+participants+who+believed+the+story+was+about+Edison+were+more+motivated+to+complete+a+series+of+math+problems.%0a%26ldquo%3bThis+confirmed+that+people+generally+seem+to+view+Einstein+as+a+genius%2c+with+his+success+commonly+linked+to+extraordinary+talent%2c%26rdquo%3b+Hu+said.+%26ldquo%3bEdison%2c+on+the+other+hand%2c+is+known+for+failing+more+than+1%2c000+times+when+trying+to+create+the+light+bulb%2c+and+his+success+is+usually+linked+to+his+persistence+and+diligence.%26rdquo%3b%0aIn+the+second+study%2c+participants+once+again+read+a+story+about+a+struggling+scientist%2c+but+while+one+half+of+the+sample+was+told+it+was+about+Einstein%2c+the+other+half+was+told+it+was+about+a+fabricated+scientist+whose+name+%26mdash%3b+Mark+Johnson+%26mdash%3b+was+previously+unfamiliar+to+them.+Compared+to+those+believing+they+were+reading+about+Einstein%2c+participants+who+read+about+Mark+Johnson+were+less+likely+to+think+exceptional+talent+was+necessary+for+success+and+more+likely+to+perform+better+on+a+series+of+math+problems.%0aFinally%2c+the+researchers+wanted+to+perform+a+final+study+to+see+if+people+simply+felt+demotivated+in+comparison+to+Einstein+or+if+Edison+and+an+unknown+scientist+could+boost+participants%26rsquo%3b+motivation.%0aIn+the+third+study%2c+the+researchers+followed+the+same+procedure+as+the+previous+two+experiments+with+one+change%3a+The+participants+were+randomly+assigned+to+read+a+story+about+an+unknown+scientist%2c+Einstein%2c+or+Edison.+Compared+to+the+unknown+scientist%2c+Edison+motivated+participants+while+Einstein+demotivated+them.%0a%26ldquo%3bThe+combined+results+suggest+that+when+you+assume+that+someone%26rsquo%3bs+success+is+linked+to+effort%2c+that+is+more+motivating+than+hearing+about+a+genius%26rsquo%3bs+predestined+success+story%2c%26rdquo%3b+Hu+said.+%26ldquo%3bKnowing+that+something+great+can+be+achieved+through+hard+work+and+effort%2c+that+message+is+much+more+inspiring.%26rdquo%3b%0aHu+and+Ahn+both+believe+that+in+addition+to+providing+insight+for+how+to+enhance+scientists%26rsquo%3b+effectiveness+as+role+models%2c+the+findings+can+also+be+used+to+help+optimize+science+education+for+students+of+all+ages.%0a%26ldquo%3bThis+information+can+help+shape+the+language+we+use+in+textbooks+and+lesson+plans+and+the+public+discourse+regarding+what+it+takes+to+succeed+in+science%2c%26rdquo%3b+Hu+said.+%26ldquo%3bYoung+people+are+always+trying+to+find+inspiration+from+and+mimic+the+people+around+them.+If+we+can+send+the+message+that+struggling+for+success+is+normal%2c+that+could+be+incredibly+beneficial.%26rdquo%3b%0aReference%3a+%26ldquo%3bNot+All+Scientists+Are+Equal%3a+Role+Aspirants+Influence+Role+Modeling+Outcomes+in+STEM%26rdquo%3b+by+Danfei+Hu%2c+Janet+N.+Ahn%2c+Melissa+Vega+and+Xiaodong+Lin-Siegler%2c+6+March+2020%2c+Basic+and+Applied+Social+Psychology.%0aDOI%3a+10.1080%2f01973533.2020.1734006%0aMelissa+Vega%2c+New+York+University%2c+and+Xiaodong+Lin-Siegler%2c+Columbia+University%2c+also+participated+in+this+work.%0aThe+National+Science+Foundation+helped+support+this+research+as+well+as+a+research+stipend+from+William+Paterson+University.

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